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kontinenz aktuell - Ausgabe 03-2012

kontinenz aktuell Oktober/201222 Titelthema Reference List (1) van Ginkel R, Reitsma JB, Büller HA et al. Childhood constipation: longitudinal follow-up beyond puberty. Gastroenterology. 2003; 125: 357–63 (2) Bongers MEJ, Van Wijk MP, Reitsma JB et al. Long-term prognosis for childhood constipation: Clinical outco- mes in adulthood. Pediatrics 2010; 126: e156–e162 (3) Stienen JJ, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA et al. Development of quality indicators based on a multidisciplinary, evidence-based guideline on pediatric constipation. Eur J Pediatr. 2011; Apr 13. [Epub ahead of print] (4) Loening-Baucke iv. Chronic constipation in children. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 1557–1564 (5) Rasquin-Weber, A., Hyman, P.E., Cucchiara, S. et al. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut 1999; 45 (Suppl 2), 60–68 (6) Rasquin A, Di Lorenzo C, Forbes D et al. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: child/adolescent. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 1527–37 (7) Di Lorenzo C, Benninga MA. Pathophysiology of pediatric fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: S33–40 (8) Benninga MA, Taminiau JA. Diagnosis and treatment efficacy of functional non-retentive fecal soiling in childhood. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001; 32: S42–3 (9) van den Berg MM, Benninga MA, Di Lorenzo C. Epidemiology of childhood constipation: a systematic re- view. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 2401–9 (10) Loening-Baucke V. Prevalence rates for constipation and faecal and urinary incontinence. Arch Dis Child. 2007; 92: 486–9 (11) Chitkara DK, Talley NJ, Weaver AL et al. Incidence of presentation of common functional gastrointestinal disorders in children from birth to 5years:a cohort study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5: 186–91 (12) Largo, R. H., Molinari, L., von Siebenthal, K. et al. Development of bladder and bowel control: Significan- ce of prematurity, perinatal risk factors, psychomotor development and gender. European Journal of Pediatrics 1999, 158, 115–122 (13) Choung RS, Shah ND, Chitkara D et al. Direct medical costs of constipation from childhood to early adult- hood: a population-based birth cohort study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011; 52: 47–54 (14) Belsey J, Greenfield S, Candy D et al. Systematic review: impact of constipation on quality of life in adults and children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 31: 938–49 (15) Benninga, M. A., Voskuijl, W. P., Taminiau, J. A. Childhood constipation: Is there new light in the tunnel? Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2004; 39: 448–64 (16) Baker, S. S., Liptak, G. S., Colletti et al. Constipation in infants and children: evaluation and treatment. A medical position statement of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1999, 29, 612–626 (17) Peeters B, Benninga MA, Hennekam RC. Childhood constipation; an overview of genetic studies and asso- ciated syndromes. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2011; 25: 73–88 (18) Partin, JC, Hamill, SK, Fischel, JE et al. Painful defecation and fecal soiling in children. Pediatrics, 1992; 92, 1007–1009 (19) Lee WT, Ip KS, Chan JS, Lui NW et al. Increased prevalence of constipation in pre-school children is attri- butable to under-consumption of plant foods: A community-based study. J Paediatr Child Health. 2008; 44: 170–5 (20) Loening-Baucke, V. Encopresis and soiling. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1996, 43, 279–298 (21) van den Berg MM, W P Voskuijl, G E Boeckxstaens and M A Benninga. Rectal compliance and rectal sen- sation in constipated adolescents, recovered adolescents and healthy volunteers. Gut 2008; 57: 599–603 (22) van Ginkel, R. Büller, H. A. Boeckxstaens et al . The effect of anorectal manometry on the outcome of treat- ment in severe childhood constipation: a randomised, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2001; 108, E9 (23) Loening-Baucke V. Prevalence rates for constipation and faecal and urinary incontinence. Arch Dis Child. 2007; 92: 486–9 (24) Bael AM, Benninga MA, Lax H et al. Functional urinary and fecal incontinence in neurologically normal children: symptoms of one ’functional elimination disorder’? BJU Int. 2007; 99: 407–12 (25) van Dijk M, Benninga MA, Grootenhuis MA, Last BF. Prevalence and associated clinical characteristics of behavior problems in constipated children. Pediatrics. 2010; 125: e309–17 (26) Borowitz SM, Cox DJ, Kovatchev B et al. Treatment of childhood constipation by primary care physicians: efficacy and predictors of outcome. Pediatrics. 2005; 115: 873–7 (27) Buderus, S. Rationale Diagnostik der chronischen Obstipation. Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 2002, 150, 587–593 (28) Claßen M, Bachmann H. Arbeitsmaterialien. In: Bachmann H, Claßen M, Hrsg. Harn- und Stuhlinkonti- nenz bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Bremen: Uni-med 2010, S. 111–121 (29) Bijo A, Czerwionka-Szaflarska M, Mazur A et al. The usefulness of ultrasound examination of the bowel as a method of assessment of functional chronic constipation in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2007; 37: 1247–52 (30) Keller, K.-M. Evidenzbasierte Therapie der chronischen Obstipation und Enkoprese bei Kindern. Monats- schrift Kinderheilkunde 2002. 150, 594–601 (31) Bekkali NL, van den Berg MM, Dijkgraaf MG et al. Rectal fecal impaction treatment in childhood constipa- tion: enemas versus high doses oral PEG. Pediatrics. 2009; 124: e1108–15 (32) Pijpers MAM, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA et al. Currently recommended treatments of childhood constipa- tion are not evidence based. A systematic literature review on the effect of laxative treatment and dietary mea- sures. Arch Dis Child 2009; 94: 117–131 (33) Lee-Robichaud H, Thomas K, Morgan J et al. Lactulose versus Polyethylene Glycol for Chronic Constipati- on. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jul 7; (7): CD007570 (34) van Dijk M, Bongers ME, de Vries GJ et al. Behavioral therapy for childhood constipation: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2008; 121: e1 334–41 (35) Brazzelli, M. & Griffiths, P. Behavioural and cognitive interventions with or without other treatments for de- faecation disorders in children. Cochrane Database Systematic Review. 2001; (4), CD002240 Zusammenfassung und Fazit Die funktionelle Obstipation stellt ein wichtiges Problem für die be- troffenen Kinder dar, das ernst ge- nommen werden muss. Eine ge- zielte Diagnostik kann in jeder Kin- derarztpraxis mit einfachen Mitteln erfolgen. Am Anfang der Behand- lung steht eine intensive Beratung und Schulung von Eltern sowie ggf. Kindern. Die Therapie sollte früh und aktiv beginnen, konse- quent erfolgen und langfristig fort- gesetzt werden. Orale sollten rek- talen Medikamenten vorgezogen werden. Der Erfolg der Therapie muss langfristig monitorisiert wer- den. Mit diesen Maßnahmen kann es gelingen, die Belastung durch diese funktionelle Störung deutlich zu vermindern und eine Chronifi- zierung bis in das Erwachsenenal- ter zu vermeiden. Interessenskonflikt: Der Autor weist auf folgende Be- ziehungen hin: Referententätigkeit für Falk Foundation und Norgine. Korrespondenzanschrift: Dr. Martin Claßen Klinikum Links der Weser Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin Pädiatrische Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Ernährung Senator-Weßling-Straße 1 28277 Bremen E-Mail: martin.classen@klinikum- bremen-ldw.de

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